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STS-35 Moonrise Image - May 27, 1997

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STS-35 Moonrise Image - May 27, 1997

Post  Admin on Sun May 22, 2011 4:49 pm

Take a look at this picture of the Moon from the STS-35 Space Shuttle mission.

Moonrise, Planet Earth, STS-35 Crew, NASA

original image - no enhancement



Explanation: During the Astro-1 astronomy mission of December, 1990, Space Shuttle astronauts photographed this stunning view of the full moon rising above the Earth's limb. In the foreground, towering clouds of condensing water vapor mark the extent of the troposphere, the lowest layer of the planet's life-sustaining atmosphere. Strongly scattering blue sunlight, the upper atmospheric layer, the stratosphere, fades dramatically to the black background of space.

Link - http://apod.nasa.gov/apod/ap970527.html




brightened image



spiked image




Image can also be found here
http://praxis.pha.jhu.edu/pictures/photopg2.html
http://praxis.pha.jhu.edu/pictures/photopg2.html





STS-35

Primary objectives were round-the-clock observations of celestial sphere in ultraviolet and X-ray astronomy with ASTRO-1 observatory consisting of four telescopes: Hopkins Ultraviolet Telescope (HUT); Wisconsin Ultraviolet Photo-Polarimeter Experiment (WUPPE); Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (UIT); and Broad Band X-Ray Telescope (BBXRT). Ultraviolet telescopes mounted on Spacelab elements in cargo bay were to be operated in shifts by flight crew.

Link - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/STS-35






STS-35 ASTRO-1 telescopes documented in OV-102's payload bay


During the STS-35 mission, the Astronomy Laboratory 1 (ASTRO-1) payload, in its onorbit operating configuration, is documented in the payload bay (PLB) of Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102. In the center of the frame, three ultraviolet telescopes are mounted and precisely coaligned on a common structure, called the cruciform, that is attached to the instrument pointing system (IPS). Visible on the cruciform are the Wisconsin Ultraviolet Photo-Polarimeter Experiment (WUPPE) (top left), the Hopkins Ultraviolet Telescope (HUT) (behind WUPPE), the Integrated Radiator System (IRS) (silver box on right), and the Optical Sensor Package (OSP) (above IRS). In the foreground and in front of the unpressurized spacelab pallet (U-pallet) is the igloo, a pressurized cylindrical container that houses the subsystems that provide such services as power, telemetry and commands to the instruments. On top of the vertical stabilizer (tail), the Shuttle Infrared Leeside Temperature Sensing (SILTS) system i
ID: STS035-81-032

Link - http://nix.larc.nasa.gov/info?id=STS035-81-032&orgid=8




Astro 1 In Orbit
Credit: STS-35 Crew, NASA




Fifteen years ago, in December of 1990, the Space Shuttle Orbiter Columbia carried an array of astronomical telescopes high above the Earth's obscuring atmosphere to explore the Universe at ultraviolet and x-ray wavelengths. The telescopes, known by the acronyms UIT, HUT, WUPPE, and BBXRT, are seen here in Columbia's payload bay against a spectacular view of the constellation Orion. The ultraviolet telescopes were mounted on a common structure - HUT is visible in this view along with a star tracker (the silver cone at the left). Taken during the nighttime portion of the shuttle's 90 minute orbit, the picture shows the telescopes and structures illuminated by moonlight.

Link - http://apod.nasa.gov/apod/ap051203.html



Last edited by Neo352 on Wed Feb 15, 2012 10:53 pm; edited 1 time in total
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Re: STS-35 Moonrise Image - May 27, 1997

Post  Admin on Sun May 22, 2011 4:50 pm

LunaCognita wrote:Interesting pic there. I don't know what is going on there. APOD even says "fades dramatically to the black background of space", so I dunno why the sky has been spiked like that.

I dunno if it is really on a related note or not, but seeing that image did remind me of something. There is one thing worth keeping in mind anytime we are seeing near-horizon imagery showing the Sun or Moon near the Earth's horizon (as in the "Moonrise" image from STS-35 you posted above). If you are in Earth orbit and are watching the Sun, Moon, or any celestial object "set" behind the Earth's horizon, a curious optical "flattening" effect occurs due to refraction by the Earth's atmosphere. This effect was first noticed way back during the Mercury program, being visually observed and filmed by Scott Carpenter on his Aurora 7 flight. During John Glenn's earlier Friendship 7 flight, he apparently captured this effect on film as well but did not notice it at the time while he was in orbit - probably because he did not have the filters that would let him stare at the solar disc very well.

This "flattening" effect results in the celestial body beyond the Earth - the Sun or Moon are the most obvious examples - appearing progressively flattened to the orbital viewer as they approach the terrestrial horizon. The opposite is the case as well, with the celestial body transitioning from "flattened" to "disc" shaped if it is "rising" above the horizon. Simply put, the body's characteristic disc-shape steadily appears to flatten into a compressed ellipse as it approaches the Earth's horizon when viewed from LEO.

Here are some graphics from a Mercury-era document that discusses this. The first one is a graphic showing the progression of this flattening effect as the Sun (or Moon) approaches the Earth's horizon. All three of these graphics come from a NASA document published in 1962 titled "Results of the Second US Manned Orbital Space Flight - May 24th, 1962" (page 44, 45, and 46 of the PDF)
http://img707.imageshack.us/img707/8876/ma07tecgraphicpg45.jpg


Another graphic covering this effect.
http://img547.imageshack.us/img547/4120/ma07tecgraphicpg44.jpg


Results of Observations
http://img577.imageshack.us/img577/8848/ma07tecgraphicpg46.jpg



Here is a link to a copy of the Results of the Second US Manned Orbital Space Flight - May 24th, 1962" document. Go to page 44, 45, and 46 of the PDF to see the info on what they refer to as the "The Flattened Sun" effect.
http://www.scribd.com/doc/44497856

This effect has been captured on film during ISS/STS missions over the years. Here are four shots from a series taken during ISS Expedition 14. First frame shows the full Moon well above the horizon, and the next three shots show the lunar disc getting progressively closer to the Earth's horizon, with different stages of the "flattening" transition effect being shown.

Frame# iss014e08916 - http://img714.imageshack.us/img714/532/iss014e08916.jpg


Frame# iss014e08933 - http://img502.imageshack.us/img502/3006/iss014e08933.jpg


Frame# iss014e08936 - http://img196.imageshack.us/img196/1769/iss014e08936.jpg


Frame# iss014e08940 - http://img32.imageshack.us/img32/1512/iss014e08940.jpg


Here is another one from the ISS Expedition 6 mission.
Frame# ISS006-E-39081 - http://img193.imageshack.us/img193/8410/debriefinghighresiss006.jpg


Also, right near the end of the Hollywood movie "The Right Stuff", they actually show some impressive footage taken from Earth orbit of the Moon, where this "flattening" transition is shown clearly as the lunar disc sets behind the Earth's horizon. I will have to look around for a clip of it on Youtube.

This progressive flattening effect is just something to keep in mind whenever viewing LEO imagery that shows us the Earth's horizon. When it is being viewed from low-Earth orbit, the closer a distant celestial object gets to being "transited" by the Earth's horizon, we should expect to see that object begin to appear more and more flattened.
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Re: STS-35 Moonrise Image - May 27, 1997

Post  Admin on Sun May 22, 2011 4:51 pm

LunaCognita wrote: regarding that first image you showed that appears in APOD (and elsewhere) with the overbright sky -
http://apod.nasa.gov/apod/image/9705/moonrise_sts35_big.jpg


Here is the darkened version - just a 50/50 contrast-up, brightness-down split until the "black background" that APOD described actually turned black. Frankly, the Moon looks like a composite drop-in to me. I think that image looks manufactured. Perhaps that is why they released it overbrightened like that? Someone was trying to draw attention to it by posting it on APOD I think.
http://img41.imageshack.us/img41/7563/moonrisests35bigdarker.jpg
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Re: STS-35 Moonrise Image - May 27, 1997

Post  Admin on Sun May 22, 2011 4:51 pm

@ LunaCognita

Thanks for the squashed Moon images that's very interesting and i believe is evidence that shows the Earth's atmosphere does indeed distort the Moons appearance. and thanks for finding the other version of the Moonrise image but i still don't understand why APOD posted that pixelated version ! maybe your right , someone wanted to draw attention to it.

The APOD version appears to be a crop from the image on the NASA server

When i brighten up the image that's from the NASA sever, it looks nothing like the APOD version ! LOL


This is a crop from the NASA server version at just 200%



A composited Moon is certainly something to consider. Either way there is definitely something wrong with this picture Rolling Eyes
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